Verification of Spanning Trees
A spanning tree of a graph G is a subgraph that connects all vertices using the minimum possible number of edges. There are often requirements for a valid spanning tree. Some ways to verify a spanning tree T of graph G:
 T contains V1 edges where V is vertices in G (minimal connectivity)
 T is acyclic and connected (forms a tree)
 T does not have any edge not in E (only original edges)
 T contains all vertices in G (spans all nodes)
Java example:


C++ example:


Python example:


Verifying correctness of spanning trees is important for applications like network optimization.
In graph theory, a spanning tree of a graph is a tree that includes all the vertices of the original graph and a subset of its edges. Verifying a spanning tree involves ensuring that the tree contains all vertices and that there are no cycles. This is useful in applications like network design where you want to connect all nodes with the minimum number of edges.
Let’s visualize the concept of verifying a spanning tree for a graph.
Consider the following graph with vertices labeled from A to D.
A
/ \
/ \
BC
\ /
\ /
D
Suppose we are given a subgraph of the above graph and are asked to verify if it is a spanning tree of the original graph. A subgraph is a spanning tree if:
 It contains all the vertices of the original graph.
 It is a tree, which means it is connected and has no cycles.
Now let’s say our subgraph consists of the following edges: {AB, BC, CD}. Visually, it looks like:
A
\
\
BC
\
\
D
To verify if this subgraph is a spanning tree:
 Check that all vertices (A, B, C, D) are included. They are.
 Check that it is connected. Yes, it is.
 Check that it has no cycles. Again, yes.
Since it meets all these conditions, it is a valid spanning tree.
For verifying programmatically, you can use algorithms like DFS or BFS to ensure that the subgraph is connected and covers all vertices, and make sure that it has N1
edges if there are N
nodes (this automatically ensures there are no cycles).
Understanding this visualization will aid in grasping code implementations for spanning tree verification in different programming languages.
Verifying if a given subset of edges forms a spanning tree of a graph involves two key checks:
 All vertices must be connected.
 There should be no cycles.
Visual Representation:
Let’s take a graph ( G ) with vertices ( A, B, C, D, E ) and assume that we want to verify a subset of edges to see if it forms a spanning tree.
The original graph ( G ):
AB
 \ 
 \ 
 \ 
DC
\ /
\ /
E
Subset of Edges to Verify (potential spanning tree):
AB
 
 
 
DC
Verification Steps:
 Connectivity: All vertices ( A, B, C, D ) are connected in the subset.
 No Cycles: The subset does not contain any cycles.
Both conditions are met, so this subset forms a spanning tree of ( G ).
For verification of a spanning tree, ensure that all vertices are connected by the subset of edges and that no cycles are formed. This concept is crucial in network design, like finding the most costeffective way to connect various cities by road or the Internet.
Solution
Below are code implementations for verifying if a given set of edges forms a spanning tree in a graph.
Java


C++


Python


Key Takeaways
 A spanning tree includes all vertices and has
n1
edges wheren
is the number of vertices.  UnionFind is an effective data structure for cycle detection and verifying spanning trees.
 The code implementations in Java, C++, and Python use UnionFind to perform verification efficiently.