Range Addition
This problem can be solved efficiently using the “Range Caching” or “Prefix Sum” technique.
Here’s how the technique works:
 For every update
[start, end, inc]
, you increment the value at indexstart
byinc
and decrement the value at indexend + 1
byinc
.  After processing all updates, compute the prefix sum of the array.
By following these steps, we can apply all updates in O(1)
time for each update and then compute the final array in O(n)
time.
Here’s how to code this:


This solution ensures that the updates are applied in constant time and then computes the final array in linear time, resulting in an overall time complexity of O(n) + O(updates)
.
Range Caching
Range Caching is an optimization technique where a range of values is cached rather than individual values. This is particularly useful when working with data that can be retrieved or computed in contiguous blocks or ranges. It’s commonly employed in databases, file systems, and similar systems where data access patterns may involve contiguous sequences.
Here’s a breakdown of how Range Caching can work:
1. Determine the Range
Identify the range of values that are most likely to be accessed together. For example, in a file system, this might be a block of bytes or a set of sequential records in a database.
2. Cache the Range
When a request is made for a specific value or set of values within the range, the entire range is loaded into the cache. This includes not only the requested values but also the surrounding values that fall within the defined range.
3. Serve Subsequent Requests from the Cache
If subsequent requests are made for values within the cached range, the system can serve those requests directly from the cache without needing to access the underlying data store. This can significantly reduce access times, especially if the underlying data store is slow to access (e.g., a disk or remote database).
4. Manage Cache Eviction
Like all caching strategies, Range Caching requires careful management of what is kept in the cache and what is evicted, especially as the cache fills up. Typical cache eviction strategies like Least Recently Used (LRU) or First In, First Out (FIFO) can be applied.
Benefits
 Efficiency: By caching a range of values, the system can reduce the number of individual accesses to the underlying data store, particularly if the data access pattern involves sequential or nearby access.
 Performance: Serving requests from the cache can be much faster than accessing the underlying data store, leading to improved performance.
Challenges
 Choosing the Right Range Size: Too small a range might miss the opportunity to cache relevant values, while too large a range might fill the cache with unneeded values.
 Handling Cache Invalidation: If the underlying data changes, the cached range must be invalidated or updated to ensure that stale data is not served.
Applications
Range Caching is widely used in scenarios where data is accessed in a sequential or clustered pattern. Examples include:
 File Systems: Reading blocks of bytes.
 Databases: Caching ranges of rows that are often queried together.
 Content Delivery Networks: Caching ranges of data for streaming media.
In summary, Range Caching is an effective technique for optimizing access to sequential or closely clustered data by caching a range of values together. It requires careful selection of the range size and management of cache invalidation, but it can provide significant performance benefits in the right scenarios.
Example
Here’s a simple example of range caching using Python. We’ll create a basic Range Cache class that can store a range of integers.
The idea is to cache a range of numbers, and whenever a number within that range is requested, it will be retrieved from the cache.


In this simple example, we define a range from 10 to 20 and cache all the numbers within that range. If a request is made for a number within that range, it’s retrieved from the cache.
This concept can be extended to more complex scenarios, such as caching blocks of files, ranges of database rows, etc. But the underlying principle remains the same: you cache a contiguous range of values to provide quicker access to them.
Prefix Sum
The Prefix Sum technique is often used to efficiently calculate the sum of elements in a given range within an array. The simplest problem that can be solved using this technique is finding the sum of elements between two indices i
and j
in an array.
Here’s how the Prefix Sum technique can be applied to this problem:
 Calculate the prefix sum array, where the value at index
i
represents the sum of all elements from index0
toi
in the original array.  To find the sum of elements from index
i
toj
, simply subtract the prefix sum at indexi1
from the prefix sum at indexj
.
Below is a simple code illustration in Python:


This simple problem demonstrates the power of the Prefix Sum technique, enabling the calculation of the sum of elements in any range within the array in constant time, after a onetime preprocessing step.
Implementation using Range Caching
This problem can be solved using a range caching technique. You want to increment all the elements within the given range (startIdx
, endIdx
) by a certain value inci
. Rather than iterating through the entire range for each update (which would lead to a higher time complexity), you can apply a clever trick.
Here’s how to do it:
 Iterate through the updates, and for each
startIdx
, addinci
to that position. At the same time, subtractinci
at the positionendIdx + 1
.  Iterate through the array and add the current element to the next one. This way, the incrementation spreads to the entire range between
startIdx
andendIdx
.
Below is the code to solve the problem:


This code snippet efficiently applies the updates and returns the final array. It takes advantage of the fact that the incrementation stays the same across the entire range, so we only need to mark the beginning and the end of the effect.
This approach has a time complexity of O(N + K), where N is the length of the array, and K is the number of updates, leading to a more efficient solution.
Implementation using Prefix Sum
The Prefix Sum technique is indeed applicable to this problem, and the solution already provided actually leverages this concept. Let’s take a closer look at how it works.
Initialization: Start by initializing an array with zeros, and for each update in
updates
, increment thestartIdx
byinci
and decrement the value atendIdx + 1
byinci
.Prefix Sum Calculation: Iterate through the array from left to right, adding the current element to the next one. This step turns the initial array into a prefix sum array.
Final Result: The resulting array after the prefix sum calculation represents the final modified array after all the updates.
Here’s the code again to make it clear:


The concept of Prefix Sum is used to calculate the cumulative sum of the array, considering all the updates. It helps to efficiently return the final array after all the updates have been applied.
10 Prerequisite LeetCode Problems
This involves array manipulation and range updates. Here are 10 problems to prepare for this problem:
LeetCode 238: Product of Array Except Self: This problem involves manipulating elements in an array based on other elements in the array.
LeetCode 448: Find All Numbers Disappeared in an Array: This problem involves understanding and manipulating indices in an array.
LeetCode 560: Subarray Sum Equals K: This problem helps understand the concept of subarray sums which is related to range updates.
LeetCode 66: Plus One: This problem helps understand how changes in one element can affect other elements in an array.
LeetCode 53: Maximum Subarray: This problem involves finding the maximum possible sum of a contiguous subarray.
LeetCode 724: Find Pivot Index: This problem involves understanding how elements relate to each other within an array.
LeetCode 122: Best Time to Buy and Sell Stock II: This problem helps in understanding how changes in one index can affect the value at another index.
LeetCode 283: Move Zeroes: This problem also involves manipulating an array based on certain conditions.
LeetCode 167: Two Sum II  Input array is sorted: This problem involves the concept of twopointer technique which can be helpful for the target problem.
LeetCode 485: Max Consecutive Ones: This problem involves finding maximum length subarray with certain property.
These cover array manipulation and understanding how updates on certain ranges or indices can affect the overall array. After you’re comfortable with these, you should be better prepared to tackle the problem.
Clarification Questions
What are the clarification questions we can ask about this problem?
Problem Analysis and Key Insights
What are the key insights from analyzing the problem statement?
Problem Boundary
What is the scope of this problem?
How to establish the boundary of this problem?
Problem Classification
Problem Statement:You are given an integer length and an array updates where updates[i] = [startIdxi, endIdxi, inci]. You have an array arr of length length with all zeros, and you have some operation to apply on arr. In the ith operation, you should increment all the elements arr[startIdxi], arr[startIdxi + 1], …, arr[endIdxi] by inci. Return arr after applying all the updates.
Example 1:
Input: length = 5, updates = [[1,3,2],[2,4,3],[0,2,2]] Output: [2,0,3,5,3]
Example 2:
Input: length = 10, updates = [[2,4,6],[5,6,8],[1,9,4]] Output: [0,4,2,2,2,4,4,4,4,4]
Constraints:
1 <= length <= 105 0 <= updates.length <= 104 0 <= startIdxi <= endIdxi < length 1000 <= inci <= 1000
Analyze the provided problem statement. Categorize it based on its domain, ignoring ‘How’ it might be solved. Identify and list out the ‘What’ components. Based on these, further classify the problem. Explain your categorizations.
Distilling the Problem to Its Core Elements
Can you identify the fundamental concept or principle this problem is based upon? Please explain. What is the simplest way you would describe this problem to someone unfamiliar with the subject? What is the core problem we are trying to solve? Can we simplify the problem statement? Can you break down the problem into its key components? What is the minimal set of operations we need to perform to solve this problem?
Visual Model of the Problem
How to visualize the problem statement for this problem?
Problem Restatement
Could you start by paraphrasing the problem statement in your own words? Try to distill the problem into its essential elements and make sure to clarify the requirements and constraints. This exercise should aid in understanding the problem better and aligning our thought process before jumping into solving it.
Abstract Representation of the Problem
Could you help me formulate an abstract representation of this problem?
Given this problem, how can we describe it in an abstract way that emphasizes the structure and key elements, without the specific realworld details?
Terminology
Are there any specialized terms, jargon, or technical concepts that are crucial to understanding this problem or solution? Could you define them and explain their role within the context of this problem?
Problem Simplification and Explanation
Could you please break down this problem into simpler terms? What are the key concepts involved and how do they interact? Can you also provide a metaphor or analogy to help me understand the problem better?
Constraints
Given the problem statement and the constraints provided, identify specific characteristics or conditions that can be exploited to our advantage in finding an efficient solution. Look for patterns or specific numerical ranges that could be useful in manipulating or interpreting the data.
What are the key insights from analyzing the constraints?
Case Analysis
Could you please provide additional examples or test cases that cover a wider range of the input space, including edge and boundary conditions? In doing so, could you also analyze each example to highlight different aspects of the problem, key constraints and potential pitfalls, as well as the reasoning behind the expected output for each case? This should help in generating key insights about the problem and ensuring the solution is robust and handles all possible scenarios.
Provide names by categorizing these cases
What are the edge cases?
How to visualize these cases?
What are the key insights from analyzing the different cases?
Identification of Applicable Theoretical Concepts
Can you identify any mathematical or algorithmic concepts or properties that can be applied to simplify the problem or make it more manageable? Think about the nature of the operations or manipulations required by the problem statement. Are there existing theories, metrics, or methodologies in mathematics, computer science, or related fields that can be applied to calculate, measure, or perform these operations more effectively or efficiently?
Simple Explanation
Can you explain this problem in simple terms or like you would explain to a nontechnical person? Imagine you’re explaining this problem to someone without a background in programming. How would you describe it? If you had to explain this problem to a child or someone who doesn’t know anything about coding, how would you do it? In layman’s terms, how would you explain the concept of this problem? Could you provide a metaphor or everyday example to explain the idea of this problem?
Problem Breakdown and Solution Methodology
Given the problem statement, can you explain in detail how you would approach solving it? Please break down the process into smaller steps, illustrating how each step contributes to the overall solution. If applicable, consider using metaphors, analogies, or visual representations to make your explanation more intuitive. After explaining the process, can you also discuss how specific operations or changes in the problem’s parameters would affect the solution? Lastly, demonstrate the workings of your approach using one or more example cases.
Inference of ProblemSolving Approach from the Problem Statement
Can you identify the key terms or concepts in this problem and explain how they inform your approach to solving it? Please list each keyword and how it guides you towards using a specific strategy or method. How can I recognize these properties by drawing tables or diagrams?
How did you infer from the problem statement that this problem can be solved using ?
Simple Explanation of the Proof
I’m having trouble understanding the proof of this algorithm. Could you explain it in a way that’s easy to understand?
Stepwise Refinement
Could you please provide a stepwise refinement of our approach to solving this problem?
How can we take the highlevel solution approach and distill it into more granular, actionable steps?
Could you identify any parts of the problem that can be solved independently?
Are there any repeatable patterns within our solution?
Solution Approach and Analysis
Given the problem statement, can you explain in detail how you would approach solving it? Please break down the process into smaller steps, illustrating how each step contributes to the overall solution. If applicable, consider using metaphors, analogies, or visual representations to make your explanation more intuitive. After explaining the process, can you also discuss how specific operations or changes in the problem’s parameters would affect the solution? Lastly, demonstrate the workings of your approach using one or more example cases.
Identify Invariant
What is the invariant in this problem?
Identify Loop Invariant
What is the loop invariant in this problem?
Thought Process
Can you explain the basic thought process and steps involved in solving this type of problem?
Explain the thought process by thinking step by step to solve this problem from the problem statement and code the final solution. Write code in Python3. What are the cues in the problem statement? What direction does it suggest in the approach to the problem? Generate insights about the problem statement.
Establishing Preconditions and Postconditions
Parameters:
 What are the inputs to the method?
 What types are these parameters?
 What do these parameters represent in the context of the problem?
Preconditions:
 Before this method is called, what must be true about the state of the program or the values of the parameters?
 Are there any constraints on the input parameters?
 Is there a specific state that the program or some part of it must be in?
Method Functionality:
 What is this method expected to do?
 How does it interact with the inputs and the current state of the program?
Postconditions:
 After the method has been called and has returned, what is now true about the state of the program or the values of the parameters?
 What does the return value represent or indicate?
 What side effects, if any, does the method have?
Error Handling:
 How does the method respond if the preconditions are not met?
 Does it throw an exception, return a special value, or do something else?
Problem Decomposition
Problem Understanding:
 Can you explain the problem in your own words? What are the key components and requirements?
Initial Breakdown:
 Start by identifying the major parts or stages of the problem. How can you break the problem into several broad subproblems?
Subproblem Refinement:
 For each subproblem identified, ask yourself if it can be further broken down. What are the smaller tasks that need to be done to solve each subproblem?
Task Identification:
 Within these smaller tasks, are there any that are repeated or very similar? Could these be generalized into a single, reusable task?
Task Abstraction:
 For each task you’ve identified, is it abstracted enough to be clear and reusable, but still makes sense in the context of the problem?
Method Naming:
 Can you give each task a simple, descriptive name that makes its purpose clear?
Subproblem Interactions:
 How do these subproblems or tasks interact with each other? In what order do they need to be performed? Are there any dependencies?
From Brute Force to Optimal Solution
Could you please begin by illustrating a brute force solution for this problem? After detailing and discussing the inefficiencies of the brute force approach, could you then guide us through the process of optimizing this solution? Please explain each step towards optimization, discussing the reasoning behind each decision made, and how it improves upon the previous solution. Also, could you show how these optimizations impact the time and space complexity of our solution?
Code Explanation and Design Decisions
Identify the initial parameters and explain their significance in the context of the problem statement or the solution domain.
Discuss the primary loop or iteration over the input data. What does each iteration represent in terms of the problem you’re trying to solve? How does the iteration advance or contribute to the solution?
If there are conditions or branches within the loop, what do these conditions signify? Explain the logical reasoning behind the branching in the context of the problem’s constraints or requirements.
If there are updates or modifications to parameters within the loop, clarify why these changes are necessary. How do these modifications reflect changes in the state of the solution or the constraints of the problem?
Describe any invariant that’s maintained throughout the code, and explain how it helps meet the problem’s constraints or objectives.
Discuss the significance of the final output in relation to the problem statement or solution domain. What does it represent and how does it satisfy the problem’s requirements?
Remember, the focus here is not to explain what the code does on a syntactic level, but to communicate the intent and rationale behind the code in the context of the problem being solved.
Coding Constructs
Consider the code for the solution of this problem.
What are the highlevel problemsolving strategies or techniques being used by this code?
If you had to explain the purpose of this code to a nonprogrammer, what would you say?
Can you identify the logical elements or constructs used in this code, independent of any programming language?
Could you describe the algorithmic approach used by this code in plain English?
What are the key steps or operations this code is performing on the input data, and why?
Can you identify the algorithmic patterns or strategies used by this code, irrespective of the specific programming language syntax?
Language Agnostic Coding Drills
Your mission is to deconstruct this code into the smallest possible learning units, each corresponding to a separate coding concept. Consider these concepts as unique coding drills that can be individually implemented and later assembled into the final solution.
Dissect the code and identify each distinct concept it contains. Remember, this process should be languageagnostic and generally applicable to most modern programming languages.
Once you’ve identified these coding concepts or drills, list them out in order of increasing difficulty. Provide a brief description of each concept and why it is classified at its particular difficulty level.
Next, describe the problemsolving approach that would lead from the problem statement to the final solution. Think about how each of these coding drills contributes to the overall solution. Elucidate the stepbystep process involved in using these drills to solve the problem. Please refrain from writing any actual code; we’re focusing on understanding the process and strategy.
Targeted Drills in Python
Now that you’ve identified and ordered the coding concepts from a complex software code in the previous exercise, let’s focus on creating Pythonbased coding drills for each of those concepts.
Begin by writing a separate piece of Python code that encapsulates each identified concept. These individual drills should illustrate how to implement each concept in Python. Please ensure that these are suitable even for those with a basic understanding of Python.
In addition to the general concepts, identify and write coding drills for any problemspecific concepts that might be needed to create a solution. Describe why these drills are essential for our problem.
Once all drills have been coded, describe how these pieces can be integrated together in the right order to solve the initial problem. Each drill should contribute to building up to the final solution.
Remember, the goal is to not only to write these drills but also to ensure that they can be cohesively assembled into one comprehensive solution.
Q&A
Similar Problems
Can you suggest 10 problems from LeetCode that require similar problemsolving strategies or use similar underlying concepts as the problem we’ve just solved? These problems can be from any domain or topic, but they should involve similar steps or techniques in the solution process. Also, please briefly explain why you consider each of these problems to be related to our original problem.