Nested Functions in JavaScript

Why do we need to nest functions in Javascript?

What problem does it solve?

Nesting functions (also known as creating inner functions or local functions) in JavaScript can be useful for several reasons:

  1. Encapsulation: Inner functions can access the outer (enclosing) function’s variables and parameters, thereby providing a form of data privacy and encapsulation. This means you can hide certain details and expose only necessary parts.

  2. Closures: This is a key concept in JavaScript. A closure is a function having access to its own scope, the outer function’s scope, and the global scope. This is useful when you want to create a factory function that can generate a family of related functions with shared state.

  3. Modular and Maintainable Code: By creating local functions, you can write cleaner and more modular code. Inner functions can be used to partition your code into smaller, more manageable blocks which can lead to better readability and maintainability.

  4. Helper Functions: Inner functions can be used as helper functions which perform a small part of the computation of the enclosing function. These functions are only needed by one function, so keeping them local can avoid polluting the global namespace.

  5. Event Handling and Asynchronous Calls: Inner functions are often used for event handling and asynchronous calls, because they have access to variables in the scope of the outer function, which may not yet exist at the time the inner function is defined.

Here’s a simple example of a nested function creating a closure:

function outerFunction(x) {
    function innerFunction(y) {
        return x + y;
    return innerFunction;

let instanceOfInner = outerFunction(10);
console.log(instanceOfInner(5));  // outputs: 15

In this case, the innerFunction forms a closure, which means it has access to its own scope, the outer function’s variables and the global variables.