Design InMemory File System
The FileSystem class can be implemented using nested dictionaries, which can help efficiently simulate directories and files. Here’s a detailed approach for each method:
__init__
: Initializes the root directory as an empty dictionary.ls
: Lists the files and directories in the given path.mkdir
: Creates directories recursively.addContentToFile
: Creates or appends content to the file at the given file path.readContentFromFile
: Returns the content from the file at the given file path.
Here’s the code:


Explanation:
 The
ls
method retrieves the contents of the directory or the file name if it’s a file path.  The
mkdir
method creates directories, initializing them as empty dictionaries.  The
addContentToFile
method creates or appends content to files, storing them as strings.  The
readContentFromFile
method retrieves the content from a file.
This design ensures that each operation is efficiently implemented and meets the constraints specified in the problem statement.
Identifying Problem Isomorphism
“Design InMemory File System” involves implementing a simplified inmemory file system with directories and files. You are tasked to perform various operations like creating directories, adding files with content, and reading the content of the files.
A simpler problem that introduces similar concepts is “Implement Trie (Prefix Tree)”. The Trie data structure is akin to a file system in that it has a hierarchical structure and can be used to organize and retrieve information efficiently.
A more complex problem could be “All O`one Data Structure”. Here, the complexity comes from designing a data structure that supports insert, delete, getMaximum and getMinimum operations all in O(1) time complexity. It requires a deeper understanding of data structures and algorithms to design an efficient solution.
The reasoning behind this selection is as follows:
“Implement Trie (Prefix Tree)” is a simpler problem because it requires the implementation of a basic treebased data structure, which is a foundation for understanding the “Design InMemory File System” problem.
“All O`one Data Structure” is a more complex problem as it requires not just the implementation of a data structure, but also the optimization of operations on that data structure to meet a specific time complexity requirement.
So, if we arrange these problems from simpler to more complex, it would be:
 “Implement Trie (Prefix Tree)”
 “Design InMemory File System”
 “All O`one Data Structure”
These mappings are approximate, and the perceived difficulty may vary based on individual familiarity with the concepts. These problems are linked by their need for understanding and implementing complex data structures.
10 Prerequisite LeetCode Problems
“588. Design InMemory File System” requires an understanding of system design, particularly file systems, data structures and objectoriented programming.
Here are 10 problems to prepare:
“Implement Stack using Queues” (LeetCode Problem #225): This problem helps in understanding the basics of data structure implementation which is a necessary skill.
“Implement Queue using Stacks” (LeetCode Problem #232): Similar to the above, it helps in understanding the inverse operation.
“Design Circular Queue” (LeetCode Problem #622): This problem introduces to you the concept of designing more complex data structures.
“Design Circular Deque” (LeetCode Problem #641): This problem requires a similar level of understanding as the circular queue problem but adds additional methods to implement.
“Design Linked List” (LeetCode Problem #707): This problem is another data structure implementation problem that will aid in understanding linked list operations.
“Flatten Nested List Iterator” (LeetCode Problem #341): This problem will help understand how to deal with nested data structures which might be helpful in understanding filesystems.
“Design Hashmap” (LeetCode Problem #706): A great problem to understand the underlying structure of a hashmap and its operations.
“Design Hashset” (LeetCode Problem #705): Similar to the hashmap problem, this focuses more on understanding set operations.
“Design TicTacToe” (LeetCode Problem #348): This problem introduces some game logic and design elements that could be useful in the filesystem problem.
“Design Add and Search Words Data Structure” (LeetCode Problem #211): This problem involves creating a data structure to add and search for words, and can help improve your understanding of search operations.
Problem Classification
Problem Statement: Design a data structure that simulates an inmemory file system.
Implement the FileSystem class:
FileSystem() Initializes the object of the system. List ls(String path) If path is a file path, returns a list that only contains this file’s name. If path is a directory path, returns the list of file and directory names in this directory. The answer should in lexicographic order. void mkdir(String path) Makes a new directory according to the given path. The given directory path does not exist. If the middle directories in the path do not exist, you should create them as well. void addContentToFile(String filePath, String content) If filePath does not exist, creates that file containing given content. If filePath already exists, appends the given content to original content. String readContentFromFile(String filePath) Returns the content in the file at filePath. Input [“FileSystem”, “ls”, “mkdir”, “addContentToFile”, “ls”, “readContentFromFile”] [[], ["/"], ["/a/b/c"], ["/a/b/c/d", “hello”], ["/"], ["/a/b/c/d"]] Output [null, [], null, null, [“a”], “hello”]
Explanation FileSystem fileSystem = new FileSystem(); fileSystem.ls("/"); // return [] fileSystem.mkdir("/a/b/c"); fileSystem.addContentToFile("/a/b/c/d", “hello”); fileSystem.ls("/"); // return [“a”] fileSystem.readContentFromFile("/a/b/c/d"); // return “hello” Constraints:
1 <= path.length, filePath.length <= 100 path and filePath are absolute paths which begin with ‘/’ and do not end with ‘/’ except that the path is just “/”. You can assume that all directory names and file names only contain lowercase letters, and the same names will not exist in the same directory. You can assume that all operations will be passed valid parameters, and users will not attempt to retrieve file content or list a directory or file that does not exist. 1 <= content.length <= 50 At most 300 calls will be made to ls, mkdir, addContentToFile, and readContentFromFile.
Analyze the provided problem statement. Categorize it based on its domain, ignoring ‘How’ it might be solved. Identify and list out the ‘What’ components. Based on these, further classify the problem. Explain your categorizations.
Visual Model of the Problem
How to visualize the problem statement for this problem?
Problem Restatement
Could you start by paraphrasing the problem statement in your own words? Try to distill the problem into its essential elements and make sure to clarify the requirements and constraints. This exercise should aid in understanding the problem better and aligning our thought process before jumping into solving it.
Abstract Representation of the Problem
Could you help me formulate an abstract representation of this problem?
Alternatively, if you’re working on a specific problem, you might ask something like:
Given this problem, how can we describe it in an abstract way that emphasizes the structure and key elements, without the specific realworld details?
Terminology
Are there any specialized terms, jargon, or technical concepts that are crucial to understanding this problem or solution? Could you define them and explain their role within the context of this problem?
Problem Simplification and Explanation
Could you please break down this problem into simpler terms? What are the key concepts involved and how do they interact? Can you also provide a metaphor or analogy to help me understand the problem better?
Constraints
Given the problem statement and the constraints provided, identify specific characteristics or conditions that can be exploited to our advantage in finding an efficient solution. Look for patterns or specific numerical ranges that could be useful in manipulating or interpreting the data.
What are the key insights from analyzing the constraints?
Case Analysis
Could you please provide additional examples or test cases that cover a wider range of the input space, including edge and boundary conditions? In doing so, could you also analyze each example to highlight different aspects of the problem, key constraints and potential pitfalls, as well as the reasoning behind the expected output for each case? This should help in generating key insights about the problem and ensuring the solution is robust and handles all possible scenarios.
Identification of Applicable Theoretical Concepts
Can you identify any mathematical or algorithmic concepts or properties that can be applied to simplify the problem or make it more manageable? Think about the nature of the operations or manipulations required by the problem statement. Are there existing theories, metrics, or methodologies in mathematics, computer science, or related fields that can be applied to calculate, measure, or perform these operations more effectively or efficiently?
Problem Breakdown and Solution Methodology
Given the problem statement, can you explain in detail how you would approach solving it? Please break down the process into smaller steps, illustrating how each step contributes to the overall solution. If applicable, consider using metaphors, analogies, or visual representations to make your explanation more intuitive. After explaining the process, can you also discuss how specific operations or changes in the problem’s parameters would affect the solution? Lastly, demonstrate the workings of your approach using one or more example cases.
Inference of ProblemSolving Approach from the Problem Statement
How did you infer from the problem statement that this problem can be solved using ?
Stepwise Refinement
Could you please provide a stepwise refinement of our approach to solving this problem?
How can we take the highlevel solution approach and distill it into more granular, actionable steps?
Could you identify any parts of the problem that can be solved independently?
Are there any repeatable patterns within our solution?
Solution Approach and Analysis
Given the problem statement, can you explain in detail how you would approach solving it? Please break down the process into smaller steps, illustrating how each step contributes to the overall solution. If applicable, consider using metaphors, analogies, or visual representations to make your explanation more intuitive. After explaining the process, can you also discuss how specific operations or changes in the problem’s parameters would affect the solution? Lastly, demonstrate the workings of your approach using one or more example cases.
Thought Process
Explain the thought process by thinking step by step to solve this problem from the problem statement and code the final solution. Write code in Python3. What are the cues in the problem statement? What direction does it suggest in the approach to the problem? Generate insights about the problem statement.
From Brute Force to Optimal Solution
Could you please begin by illustrating a brute force solution for this problem? After detailing and discussing the inefficiencies of the brute force approach, could you then guide us through the process of optimizing this solution? Please explain each step towards optimization, discussing the reasoning behind each decision made, and how it improves upon the previous solution. Also, could you show how these optimizations impact the time and space complexity of our solution?
Coding Constructs
Consider the following piece of complex software code.
What are the highlevel problemsolving strategies or techniques being used by this code?
If you had to explain the purpose of this code to a nonprogrammer, what would you say?
Can you identify the logical elements or constructs used in this code, independent of any programming language?
Could you describe the algorithmic approach used by this code in plain English?
What are the key steps or operations this code is performing on the input data, and why?
Can you identify the algorithmic patterns or strategies used by this code, irrespective of the specific programming language syntax?
Language Agnostic Coding Drills
Your mission is to deconstruct this code into the smallest possible learning units, each corresponding to a separate coding concept. Consider these concepts as unique coding drills that can be individually implemented and later assembled into the final solution.
Dissect the code and identify each distinct concept it contains. Remember, this process should be languageagnostic and generally applicable to most modern programming languages.
Once you’ve identified these coding concepts or drills, list them out in order of increasing difficulty. Provide a brief description of each concept and why it is classified at its particular difficulty level.
Next, describe the problemsolving approach that would lead from the problem statement to the final solution. Think about how each of these coding drills contributes to the overall solution. Elucidate the stepbystep process involved in using these drills to solve the problem. Please refrain from writing any actual code; we’re focusing on understanding the process and strategy.
Targeted Drills in Python
Now that you’ve identified and ordered the coding concepts from a complex software code in the previous exercise, let’s focus on creating Pythonbased coding drills for each of those concepts.
Begin by writing a separate piece of Python code that encapsulates each identified concept. These individual drills should illustrate how to implement each concept in Python. Please ensure that these are suitable even for those with a basic understanding of Python.
In addition to the general concepts, identify and write coding drills for any problemspecific concepts that might be needed to create a solution. Describe why these drills are essential for our problem.
Once all drills have been coded, describe how these pieces can be integrated together in the right order to solve the initial problem. Each drill should contribute to building up to the final solution.
Remember, the goal is to not only to write these drills but also to ensure that they can be cohesively assembled into one comprehensive solution.
Q&A
Similar Problems
Given the problem [provide the problem], identify and list down 10 similar problems on LeetCode. These should cover similar concepts or require similar problemsolving approaches as the provided problem. Please also give a brief reason as to why you think each problem is similar to the given problem.