Count Strictly Increasing Subarrays


Identifying Problem Isomorphism
“Count Strictly Increasing Subarrays” can be approximately mapped to “Longest Increasing Subsequence”.
Reasoning:
Both involve finding and counting increasing sequences within an array of numbers. However, the objectives differ in specifics: “Count Strictly Increasing Subarrays” requires you to count all possible subarrays in which the elements are in strictly increasing order, whereas “Longest Increasing Subsequence” seeks the longest possible subsequence (not necessarily contiguous) of increasing elements.
While both require understanding of the concept of increasing order in sequences and can leverage similar iteration strategies, they are approximately isomorphic due to the differences in their objectives and the type of sequences they are focusing on (subarray vs. subsequence).
“Longest Increasing Subsequence” is a simpler problem because it only seeks the longest increasing subsequence, irrespective of its position within the original sequence.“Count Strictly Increasing Subarrays” adds an extra layer of complexity by asking for the count of all possible increasing subarrays.
10 Prerequisite LeetCode Problems
The problem involves finding subarrays of a certain condition in an array. Here are problems to build up to this:
LeetCode 674: Longest Continuous Increasing Subsequence: This problem involves finding the length of the longest increasing subsequence, which can help in understanding how to identify increasing subsequences.
LeetCode 53: Maximum Subarray: This problem involves finding a subarray with the largest sum, which can help in understanding how to find and handle subarrays.
LeetCode 300: Longest Increasing Subsequence: This dynamic programming problem involves finding the length of the longest increasing subsequence, which is helpful for identifying increasing subsequences.
LeetCode 121: Best Time to Buy and Sell Stock: This problem requires you to find the maximum difference between two elements in the array. It’s not directly related but understanding it can help you understand how to identify increasing subsequences.
LeetCode 152: Maximum Product Subarray: This problem involves finding a subarray with the maximum product, which can help in understanding how to find and handle subarrays.
LeetCode 325: Maximum Size Subarray Sum Equals k: This problem involves finding a subarray that sums to a specific value, which can be useful for understanding how to handle sums in an array.
LeetCode 209: Minimum Size Subarray Sum: This problem involves finding the minimum length subarray with a sum that is at least as large as a target. It can help you understand how to identify subarrays with certain properties.
LeetCode 523: Continuous Subarray Sum: This problem involves finding if a subarray exists that sums to a multiple of a specific number.
LeetCode 560: Subarray Sum Equals K: This problem involves finding a subarray that sums to a specific value, which can be useful for understanding how to handle sums in an array.
LeetCode 718: Maximum Length of Repeated Subarray: This problem requires finding the longest subarray that occurs in both of two given arrays. It can help you understand how to identify and compare subarrays.
These problems involve handling subarrays and identifying increasing sequences.
Clarification Questions
Clarification questions can help ensure that you understand the problem requirements and constraints fully. Here are some questions that could be useful:
 Can the array contain duplicate numbers? (The example suggests yes, but it’s good to confirm.)
 Is a subarray with a single element considered strictly increasing?
 Are there any space or time complexity constraints beyond the input size limitations?
 Will the input array always contain positive integers, or can it contain zeroes and negative integers as well?
 Is the order of the elements in the output subarrays significant? (Presumably yes, since they must be increasing.)
 Do we need to actually list the subarrays, or just count their number? (The problem statement suggests just counting.)
 Is an empty array a valid input, and if so, what would be the expected output?
 What should be the output if no strictly increasing subarrays exist?
Asking these questions can help you avoid misunderstandings and edge cases that could cause your solution to be incorrect.
Problem Analysis and Key Insights
Key Insights:
Contiguous Subarray: We’re interested in contiguous parts of the array, meaning elements that appear next to each other.
Strictly Increasing: A subarray must consist of numbers that are strictly increasing, which means each number must be greater than the one before it.
Single Element: Subarrays of length 1 are considered strictly increasing, as stated in the examples.
Count, Not List: The problem asks for the count of such subarrays, not the subarrays themselves.
Constraints: With the constraints in mind, an algorithm with linear or nearlinear time complexity would be desirable.
Positive Integers: The problem specifically mentions that the array will consist of positive integers.
Based on these insights, this is a computational algorithm problem related to subarray and sequence analysis. The main task is to identify and count subarrays that meet the “strictly increasing” condition.
Problem Boundary
The scope of the problem is confined to:
 A given array of positive integers named
nums
.  Identifying contiguous subarrays within
nums
that are strictly increasing.  Counting the number of such strictly increasing subarrays.
Constraints also define the scope:
 Array Length: The length of
nums
is between 1 and 10^5.  Element Size: Each element in
nums
is between 1 and 10^6.
The problem does not ask for the actual subarrays, just the count. It does not involve modifying the array, sorting it, or dealing with negative numbers or zeros. Therefore, the scope is quite focused on sequence analysis within the given constraints.
To establish the boundary of this problem, consider the following:
 Input Limitations:
 The array
nums
contains only positive integers.  The length of the array is between 1 and 10^5.
 Each element is between 1 and 10^6.
 Output Limitations:
 The output is a single integer, representing the count of strictly increasing subarrays.
 Functional Limitations:
 The subarrays must be contiguous parts of the original array.
 Subarrays must be strictly increasing, meaning each number is greater than the one before it.
 Operational Limitations:
 The problem does not require you to return the actual subarrays, only the count.
 Constraints:
 You are not allowed to modify the original array.
 Sorting the array or its subarrays is irrelevant to the problem.
By understanding these limitations and constraints, you effectively establish the problem’s boundary.
Problem Classification
The problem falls under the domain of “Array Manipulation” and “Combinatorial Enumeration”. It involves iterating through a given array and enumerating all the strictly increasing subarrays.
What
 Input: An array
nums
consisting of positive integers.  Output: An integer representing the number of strictly increasing subarrays within the given array.
 Constraints: The length of the array is at least 1 and at most (10^5). Each element in the array is at least 1 and at most (10^6).
This is a “Counting Problem” where the objective is to count the number of specific arrangements (strictly increasing subarrays in this case) that satisfy a certain property. This categorization is based on the fact that you’re not transforming the array or querying it for some value, but you are required to count specific contiguous arrangements within it.
This problem may require skills in array traversal, simple condition checking, and perhaps some mathematical insights for an optimal solution.
Distilling the Problem to Its Core Elements
Fundamental Concept: The problem is based on the concept of “subarrays” and their properties—in this case, the property of being “strictly increasing.”
Simplest Description: You have a list of numbers. Find out how many parts of this list have numbers that only go up when read from left to right.
Core Problem: The core problem is to count the number of subarrays that are strictly increasing.
Key Components:
 Input array of positive integers
 Contiguous subarrays
 Strictly increasing order
 Count of such subarrays
 Minimal Set of Operations:
 Loop through the array to find the start of each strictly increasing subarray.
 Count the length of each strictly increasing subarray.
 Use the length to find the number of strictly increasing subarrays that can be formed from it.
 Sum up these numbers to get the total count.
By understanding these aspects, you get a clearer picture of what the problem is asking and how to approach solving it.
Visual Model of the Problem
To visualize the problem, think of the array as a series of steps, each step having a height equal to the number at that position in the array.
 Start at the beginning of the array.
 If the next step is higher, move to it. This forms a “strictly increasing” path.
 If the next step is equal or lower, that’s the end of the strictly increasing path.
For example, for the array [1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 6]:
 Draw six steps with heights 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, and 6.
 You can visually track paths that only go upwards (like 1 > 3 > 5 and 4 > 6).
Label:
 Each step with its value and position in the array.
 Each strictly increasing path you can take, indicating its length.
This visualization can help you understand where the strictly increasing subarrays start and end, aiding you in finding a solution.
Problem Restatement
You have a list of positive numbers. Your task is to find how many contiguous segments of this list have numbers that go up when read from left to right. A segment can be as short as one number or include several. You need to count all such segments.
Requirements:
 The list contains only positive integers.
 The list has at least one element and at most 100,000 elements.
 Each number in the list is at most 1,000,000.
By distilling the problem this way, we focus on the key elements: the list, the segments, and the count of segments that go up. This sets the stage for devising a solution.
Abstract Representation of the Problem
In abstract terms, you have a sequence (S) of (n) positive integers (s_1, s_2, \ldots, s_n). A subsequence (T) of (S) is defined as (t_1, t_2, \ldots, t_m) where (1 \leq m \leq n) and (t_i < t_{i+1}) for (1 \leq i < m). The objective is to find the total number of such subsequences (T) that are strictly increasing.
Here, the sequence (S) and the conditions for (T) represent the core of the problem. We abstract away from realworld applications or specifics like array lengths and integer limits, focusing solely on the structural components: the sequence, the subsequence, and the condition of increasing order.
Terminology
Array: A collection of elements identified by index or key. In this problem, the array is the list of positive integers we need to analyze.
Subarray: A contiguous part of an array. In this problem, we’re looking for subarrays that have specific properties (strictly increasing).
Contiguous: Lying next to each other. Here, the elements in the subarray must be next to each other in the original array.
Strictly Increasing: Each element is larger than the preceding one. In this problem, we’re counting subarrays where this is true.
Understanding these terms is crucial for framing the problem correctly and subsequently solving it. They allow us to precisely define what we’re looking for: the number of contiguous, strictly increasing subarrays within the given array of positive integers.
Problem Simplification and Explanation
Imagine you have a line of kids standing based on their heights. Each kid represents a number in your array, and they are standing in the same order as the numbers appear in the array.
Your task is to find groups of kids who are standing next to each other and are sorted in increasing height. Each group should have at least one kid. You have to count all such possible groups.
Key Concepts:
 Line of Kids (Array): Represents the sequence of numbers you have.
 Groups of Kids (Subarrays): Smaller sequences that come from the original line.
 Increasing Height (Strictly Increasing): Each next kid in the group should be taller than the previous one.
So, the core of the problem is finding all such ‘groups of kids’ from the ’line of kids’ where each ‘group of kids’ is arranged in ‘increasing height.’
Constraints
Array Size Constraint: The maximum size of the array is (10^5), indicating that a solution with time complexity (O(n \log n)) or better will likely be efficient enough.
Element Range: Elements in the array range from 1 to (10^6), which suggests we don’t need to worry about negative numbers or zero, simplifying the check for strictly increasing sequences.
Subarray Length: We’re counting strictly increasing subarrays, not subsequences. This means we only need to consider contiguous elements in the array, which allows for a more straightforward solution.
Smallest Increasing Subarray: Any single element counts as a strictly increasing subarray of length 1, which is an insight that could simplify calculations.
Sequential Increasing Numbers: If we encounter a sequence of increasing numbers in the array, we can mathematically calculate the number of increasing subarrays within that sequence without enumerating them. For example, in the sequence [1, 2, 3], there are 3 subarrays of length 1, 2 subarrays of length 2, and 1 subarray of length 3, totalling 6 increasing subarrays.
These characteristics and constraints can guide us to formulate an efficient algorithm to solve the problem.
The key insights from analyzing the constraints are:
Time Complexity: Given the array size constraint ((1 \leq \text{nums.length} \leq 10^5)), we should aim for a solution that has a time complexity of (O(n)) or (O(n \log n)) to ensure it runs efficiently.
Element Constraint: The elements of the array are positive and up to (10^6), which eliminates the need to handle negative numbers or zero. This simplifies the task of identifying strictly increasing subarrays.
Numerical Patterns: The problem involves counting subarrays, not subsequences. We only need to focus on contiguous elements, which simplifies the logic. Moreover, individual elements are counted as strictly increasing subarrays of length 1, simplifying the counting logic further.
Mathematical Shortcut: For sequential increasing numbers in the array, the number of increasing subarrays can be calculated mathematically, avoiding the need to enumerate them individually.
These insights help in narrowing down the approach and optimizing the algorithm to solve the problem.
Case Analysis
Let’s generate some additional test cases for the problem of counting strictly increasing subarrays in a given array nums
.
Categories and Names for Test Cases
 Empty or Singleton Array
 Sorted Array
 Reverse Sorted Array
 Array with Duplicates
 Random Array with Large Elements
 Random Array with Small Elements
Test Cases and Analysis
1. Empty or Singleton Array
 Input:
nums = []
ornums = [1]
 Expected Output: 0 for empty array, 1 for singleton array
 Analysis: No subarray exists in an empty array. A singleton array has only one subarray (itself).
2. Sorted Array
 Input:
nums = [1, 2, 3]
 Expected Output: 6
 Analysis: Increasing subarrays are
[1], [2], [3], [1, 2], [2, 3], [1, 2, 3]
. This shows that all subarrays are strictly increasing.
3. Reverse Sorted Array
 Input:
nums = [3, 2, 1]
 Expected Output: 3
 Analysis: Only singleton subarrays are strictly increasing:
[3], [2], [1]
.
4. Array with Duplicates
 Input:
nums = [1, 2, 2, 3]
 Expected Output: 6
 Analysis: Increasing subarrays:
[1], [2], [2], [3], [1, 2], [2, 3]
. Notice how[2, 2]
is not strictly increasing.
5. Random Array with Large Elements
 Input:
nums = [10^6, 1, 2]
 Expected Output: 5
 Analysis: Increasing subarrays are
[10^6], [1], [2], [1, 2]
.
6. Random Array with Small Elements
 Input:
nums = [1, 1, 1]
 Expected Output: 3
 Analysis: Only singleton arrays are increasing:
[1], [1], [1]
.
Edge Cases
 Empty array: The array is empty.
 Singleton array: The array contains only one element.
These test cases cover a variety of conditions that might affect the outcome. It’s crucial that the algorithm handles all these cases correctly to ensure robustness.
Visualizing these test cases can aid in understanding the problem better. Here’s how you can visualize each category:
Empty or Singleton Array: A blank or singlebox grid.
Empty:   Singleton:  1 
Sorted Array: Ascending boxes, each higher than the previous.
 1  2  3 
Reverse Sorted Array: Descending boxes, each lower than the previous.
 3  2  1 
Array with Duplicates: Ascending or descending boxes, but with some boxes having the same height.
 1  2  2  3 
Random Array with Large Elements: Varied height boxes, with one box significantly taller.
 1000000  1  2 
Random Array with Small Elements: Varied height boxes, all about the same small height.
 1  1  1 
Edge Cases
 Empty array: Visualize as an empty line.
 Singleton array: A single box on the line.
Visualizations like these can help you grasp how the algorithm should operate on each type of input and where potential edge cases may lie.
Analyzing different cases provides several key insights:
Empty or Singleton Array: These are the simplest cases and will likely have trivial solutions. For an empty array, the number of increasing subarrays is zero. For a singleton array, it’s one.
Sorted Array: In this case, every subarray is strictly increasing. This allows for maximal subarrays and can be optimized accordingly.
Reverse Sorted Array: The opposite of sorted. Here, only singleelement subarrays are strictly increasing. Knowing this, you can directly calculate the result without extra computation.
Array with Duplicates: The presence of duplicates means some subarrays won’t be strictly increasing. A different approach may be needed to skip over these efficiently.
Random Array with Large Elements: Large elements are not different algorithmically but may need consideration for performance or integer overflow issues.
Random Array with Small Elements: Again, algorithmically identical to other random arrays but could represent a common realworld case to optimize for.
By analyzing these cases, you understand that the algorithm should be versatile enough to handle various array types. Also, the insights can guide optimizations: for example, a sorted array allows for a fast calculation based on its length, while an array with duplicates requires careful iteration.
Identification of Applicable Theoretical Concepts
The problem of finding strictly increasing subarrays can leverage the following mathematical and algorithmic concepts to make it more manageable:
Arithmetic Progressions: If an array is sorted, the number of strictly increasing subarrays can be calculated using the formula for the sum of an arithmetic sequence. This allows for constanttime computation for sorted arrays.
Dynamic Programming: Since you can build larger increasing subarrays from smaller ones, dynamic programming (DP) can be highly effective for storing and reusing precomputed values.
Sliding Window Technique: By maintaining a “window” of sorted elements while iterating through the array, you can efficiently identify new strictly increasing subarrays without having to restart the count from each element.
Complexity Analysis: BigO notation can be applied to understand the time and space complexity of the proposed algorithm, which is especially useful given the constraints of the problem (1 <= nums.length <= 10^5 and 1 <= nums[i] <= 10^6).
Recursion: Recursion could be a way to solve this, although given the size constraints, it’s not the most efficient method. Still, understanding how to solve it recursively might provide insights into its structure.
Divide and Conquer: This approach may not directly apply but understanding the problem in smaller subproblems could help in formulating an efficient algorithm.
Caching/Memoization: Caching the number of strictly increasing subarrays starting or ending at a certain index could speed up the algorithm.
Combinatorial Math: The problem ultimately asks for a count of certain subsets of the array. Combinatorial math could provide shortcuts or formulas to make these calculations more efficiently.
By using these existing theories and methodologies, you can make the problem much more manageable and possibly derive a more efficient solution.
Simple Explanation
Imagine you have a row of building blocks, each with a different number on it. You want to find out how many different “stairs” you can make by stacking the blocks from left to right so that the numbers go up. You can make “stairs” that are just one block high, or several blocks high.
For example, let’s say you have blocks with numbers 1, 3, 5, 4, 4, and 6. You can make a “stair” with just the block numbered 1, or you can make a bigger “stair” with blocks numbered 1, 3, and 5.
Your task is to find out all the different “stairs” you can make using your row of numbered blocks.
So in simple terms, you’re trying to find all the different ways to pick out increasing sequences of numbers from the given list.
Problem Breakdown and Solution Methodology
To solve this problem, you could use a twostep approach: Counting and Summing.
Step 1: Counting
As you go through the list from left to right, keep track of how many numbers are in increasing order. Every time you see a number that’s bigger than the last one, increase your count.
Metaphor: Imagine you are walking on a path and placing flags on spots where the ground starts to rise. Each flag represents a point where a new “stair” starts.
Step 2: Summing
For each increasing sequence, calculate the number of subarrays that can be made. This can be done with simple math. If you have n
numbers in an increasing sequence, you can form n * (n + 1) / 2
subarrays. Then sum these up for all the sequences.
Metaphor: Each flag you placed while walking can now be seen as the base of a small hill. The number of ways to go from one flag to another (or from one flag to itself) will make up the total “stairs.”
Parameter Changes
 If the list has more elements, the time it takes will naturally increase, but not exponentially.
 If the range of numbers in the array expands, it won’t significantly affect the time complexity but might affect the count of subarrays.
Example
Consider the array: [1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 6]
Start from the first number
1
. Count = 1 (Start a flag)Next is
3
, which is greater. Count = 2 (Place another flag)Next is
5
, which is greater. Count = 3 (Place another flag) You can make
3 * (3 + 1) / 2 = 6
subarrays here.[1], [1, 3], [1, 3, 5], [3], [3, 5], [5]
 You can make
Next is
4
, which is smaller. Reset Count = 1 (Start a new flag)Next is
4
, which is equal. Count stays = 1 (No flag)Next is
6
, which is greater. Count = 2 (Place another flag) You can make
2 * (2 + 1) / 2 = 3
subarrays here.[4], [6], [4, 6]
 You can make
Total subarrays = 6 (from first sequence) + 3 (from the second sequence) + 1 (for [4]) = 10
This approach ensures you get all the increasing subarrays and their counts efficiently.
Inference of ProblemSolving Approach from the Problem Statement
Array: The problem deals with an array of numbers. This informs us that we will be using indexed data and likely employ iteration to solve the problem.
Subarray: A contiguous part of an array. Knowing this directs us to look for sequences within the array, either by sliding window or by tracking start and end points.
Strictly Increasing Order: This term is vital for identifying which subarrays we are interested in. It guides us to look for sequences where each number is greater than its predecessor.
Positive Integers: This constraint simplifies the problem because we don’t have to worry about zero or negative numbers. It means that any increase in the sequence will be straightforward to identify.
Constraints on Array Length and Element Size: These tell us about the upper limits of the problem space, guiding us on the efficiency needed for our solution. Since the array can be as long as 10^5 elements, a solution with linear time complexity would be preferable.
Counting: The problem asks for the “number of” such subarrays, which informs us that the solution will involve some form of counting, likely within the iteration.
Each of these terms guides the strategy: We will iterate through the array, use counting to identify increasing sequences, and employ simple math to find the number of subarrays in each sequence. Knowing the constraints also assures us that a lineartime solution will suffice.
Drawing tables or diagrams can help you visually capture the core elements of this problem. Here’s how:
Array as a Table: Think of the array as a row in a table. Each cell in the row corresponds to an element in the array. This will help you visualize the array and identify contiguous subarrays easily.
 1  3  5  4  4  6 
Subarrays: Below your array row, you can make new rows that show the increasing subarrays.
 1  3  5     => Length 3  1  3      => Length 2  3  5      => Length 2  4  6      => Length 2
Highlighting Increase: Use arrows or colorcoding to highlight strictly increasing sequences.
 1 → 3 → 5    6 
Counting Subarrays: You could add a side column that keeps a running total of the number of subarrays, broken down by length.
Length 3: 1 Length 2: 3 Length 1: 6
Constraints: You can put boundaries on your table to indicate the constraints like maximum array length or element size. This helps in understanding the scope of your solution.
By using tables and diagrams like these, you can visualize how subarrays form, how to count them, and how constraints affect the problem. This visual representation can make it easier to spot patterns and understand the interactions between key terms and constraints.
How did you infer from the problem statement that this problem can be solved using ?
Simple Explanation of the Proof
I’m having trouble understanding the proof of this algorithm. Could you explain it in a way that’s easy to understand?
Stepwise Refinement
High Level Approach
Initialize Counters: Start by initializing a counter for the total number of subarrays and another for the length of the current increasing sequence.
1 2
total_count = 0 current_length = 0
Iterate Through Array: Loop through the given array of integers.
1
for i in range(len(nums)):
Check Increasing Order: Within the loop, check if the next number is greater than the previous one.
1
if nums[i] > nums[i1]:
Update Counters: If the sequence is increasing, increment the
current_length
and add it to thetotal_count
.1 2
current_length += 1 total_count += current_length
Reset Counter: If the sequence is not increasing, reset
current_length
to zero.1 2
else: current_length = 0
Return Result: Once the loop finishes,
total_count
will contain the total number of strictly increasing subarrays.1
return total_count
Granular, Actionable Steps
 Declare variables for counting.
 Use a
for
loop to traverse the array.  Utilize an
ifelse
structure inside the loop to check for strictly increasing sequences.  In the
if
block, update the counters based on the current length of the increasing sequence.  In the
else
block, reset the counter for the length of the current sequence.  Return the total count.
Parts That Can Be Solved Independently
 Initializing counters can be done independently of the loop structure.
 Checking for increasing sequence and updating counters can be encapsulated into a separate function if needed.
Repeatable Patterns
 The pattern of checking each pair of elements to see if they form an increasing sequence is repetitive.
 The pattern of updating counters based on the result of the check is also repetitive.
By breaking down the problem into these steps and identifying independent parts and repeatable patterns, we can have a clearer path to an effective solution.
Solution Approach and Analysis
Step 1: Initialize Counters
We’ll start with two counters: one for the total count of increasing subarrays (total_count
) and one for the length of the current increasing sequence (current_length
).
 Think of
total_count
as a scoreboard, andcurrent_length
as the current points you’re scoring in a streak.
Step 2: Loop Through the Array
Loop through each element in the array starting from the second element (since we’ll compare each element with its previous).
 Imagine this like walking down a line of numbered blocks and checking each step if the block ahead is higher than the one you’re standing on.
Step 3: Check for Increasing Sequence
In each iteration, compare the current number with the previous number.
 If it’s like climbing a stair, the next step should be higher.
Step 4: Update Counters
If the sequence is increasing, increase current_length
by 1 and add it to total_count
.
 Think of it as extending your winning streak. Your streak gets longer, and you add these streak points to the scoreboard (
total_count
).
Step 5: Reset for NonIncreasing Sequences
If the sequence is not increasing, reset current_length
to zero.
 It’s like your winning streak ended; you reset it.
Step 6: Return Total Count
After completing the loop, total_count
will have the answer. Return this.
How Parameter Changes Affect the Solution
 If the array becomes longer, time complexity will linearly increase.
 If numbers are not strictly increasing, it will reset the
current_length
counter.
Example Cases
Case 1: nums = [1, 3, 5, 4, 4, 6]
 Initialize
total_count = 0
andcurrent_length = 0
 First iteration: 3 > 1,
current_length = 1
,total_count = 1
 Second iteration: 5 > 3,
current_length = 2
,total_count = 3
 Third iteration: 4 < 5,
current_length = 0
 Fourth iteration: 4 == 4,
current_length = 0
 Fifth iteration: 6 > 4,
current_length = 1
,total_count = 4
 Return
total_count = 4
Case 2: nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
 Initialize
total_count = 0
andcurrent_length = 0
 Loop will run through, with each iteration increasing
current_length
by 1 andtotal_count
bycurrent_length
each time. total_count
will be 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15
This way, you can understand the problem and solve it effectively.
Identify Invariant
The invariant in this problem is the relationship that every contiguous subarray must be in strictly increasing order to count toward the total_count
. This relationship doesn’t change as you traverse the array and is used to decide whether to increment the current_length
and total_count
.
In simpler terms, the rule that the numbers must go up without skipping or repeating stays the same as you look through the array. This is like a game rule that doesn’t change midgame.
Identify Loop Invariant
The loop invariant here is that at the beginning of each iteration of the loop, total_count
contains the number of strictly increasing subarrays found so far in the array up to index i1
, and current_length
contains the length of the current strictly increasing sequence up to index i1
.
This invariant holds true:
 Before the loop starts: At this point,
total_count
is 0, andcurrent_length
is 1, which correctly represents the situation before examining the array.  During each iteration: Within the loop,
total_count
andcurrent_length
are updated based on the comparison betweennums[i]
andnums[i1]
. If the sequence is still increasing,current_length
is incremented. If it’s not,total_count
gets updated based oncurrent_length
, andcurrent_length
is reset.  After the loop terminates:
total_count
will hold the number of all strictly increasing subarrays in the complete array, except for the singleelement subarrays, which we add at the end (total_count + len(nums)
).
Understanding the loop invariant helps ensure that the loop logic is correct and that total_count
will contain the correct answer when the loop terminates.
In this problem, the term “invariant” and “loop invariant” are closely related but not exactly the same.
The loop invariant specifically refers to the conditions that remain unchanged before, during, and after each iteration of the loop. It’s a tool for reasoning about the correctness of the loop.
The term “invariant” in a broader sense could refer to any property that holds true throughout the execution of an algorithm or a program, not just within a loop. For example, the array length never changing could be an “invariant,” but it’s not a “loop invariant” because it doesn’t specifically relate to the loop’s operation.
In the context of counting strictly increasing subarrays within a given array, a loop invariant could be something like: “At the start of each iteration, all strictly increasing subarrays starting before index i
have been counted.”
This specific invariant applies directly to the loop’s operation and its purpose in the algorithm. In this case, both the loop invariant and the overall algorithmic invariant are tightly coupled and serve the same function, focusing on the count of strictly increasing subarrays.
So, for this specific problem, the loop invariant and the overall algorithmic invariant can be considered the same.
Thought Process
Cues in the Problem Statement:
 Array of positive integers.
 Find subarrays that are strictly increasing.
 Count the total number of such subarrays.
Direction for Approach:
 We need to scan the array from start to end to identify strictly increasing subarrays.
 Since we have to return the total count of such subarrays, we have to keep a counter.
Insights:
 Subarrays can have a length of 1 (single elements), which will automatically be counted.
 When a sequence stops being increasing, we can calculate the number of increasing subarrays within it.
Thought Process and Steps:
 Initialize two variables:
total_count
to store the total number of increasing subarrays, andcurrent_length
to store the length of the current increasing subarray.  Loop through the array, comparing each element to its previous element.
 If the element is greater than the previous one, increment
current_length
.  Add
current_length
tototal_count
.  If the current element isn’t greater than the previous one, reset
current_length
to 1.
Here’s the code:


So, the key insight is understanding that when you find a strictly increasing subarray, you can calculate its contribution to the total count. Then, you just keep scanning through the array to find more such subarrays.
Establishing Preconditions and Postconditions
Parameters:
 Inputs: The input is an array
nums
consisting of positive integers.  Types: The array is of type
int[]
orList[int]
in Python.  Context: This array represents the sequence of numbers that need to be analyzed to find all strictly increasing subarrays.
 Inputs: The input is an array
Preconditions:
 The array
nums
must be nonempty and must contain only positive integers.  Constraints:
1 <= nums.length <= 10^5
,1 <= nums[i] <= 10^6
.  The program is expected to be in a state where it can read an array and output an integer.
 The array
Method Functionality:
 The method is expected to return the total number of strictly increasing subarrays within the given array
nums
.  The method reads the input array and calculates the output based on its elements.
 The method is expected to return the total number of strictly increasing subarrays within the given array
Postconditions:
 The state of the program remains largely unchanged, except for any variables used for computation.
 The return value is an integer representing the total number of strictly increasing subarrays.
 No side effects on the input parameters.
Error Handling:
 If the array is empty or contains elements that are not positive integers, the method could throw an exception or return a special value (like 1) to indicate an error.
Problem Decomposition
Problem Understanding:
 The problem asks for the total number of subarrays within a given array that are strictly increasing. Key components include the input array and the constraints on its size and element values. The requirement is to return an integer representing the total count of such subarrays.
Initial Breakdown:
 Major parts include:
 Reading the input array.
 Identifying subarrays.
 Checking if subarrays are strictly increasing.
 Counting such subarrays.
 Major parts include:
Subproblem Refinement:
 Reading the input array:
 Verify input constraints.
 Identifying subarrays:
 Iterate through the array to form contiguous subarrays.
 Checking if subarrays are strictly increasing:
 Compare each element to its next element in the subarray.
 Counting such subarrays:
 Maintain a counter to keep track.
 Reading the input array:
Task Identification:
 Iterating through the array and comparing elements are tasks that are repeated.
Task Abstraction:
 Each task is clear and abstracted enough to be understood easily but is also directly relevant to the problem context.
Method Naming:
 VerifyInput()
 IdentifySubarrays()
 IsStrictlyIncreasing()
 CountSubarrays()
Subproblem Interactions:
 VerifyInput() needs to be done before any other tasks.
 IdentifySubarrays() and IsStrictlyIncreasing() are dependent and must be done together.
 CountSubarrays() will take input from the result of IdentifySubarrays() and IsStrictlyIncreasing().
 The tasks generally need to be performed in the order: VerifyInput, IdentifySubarrays & IsStrictlyIncreasing, and finally CountSubarrays.
From Brute Force to Optimal Solution
Brute Force Solution
Here’s a bruteforce solution in Python3:


Inefficiencies:
 Nested loops iterate through all possible subarrays, making it (O(n^2)) just to generate subarrays.
 Within the inner loop, we check if the subarray is strictly increasing, costing (O(n)).
 Overall time complexity: (O(n^3)).
Optimization Steps
Identify the pattern: Notice that for a subarray
[a, b, c, d]
that is strictly increasing, it contributes to strictly increasing subarrays[a, b]
,[b, c]
,[c, d]
,[a, b, c]
,[b, c, d]
, and[a, b, c, d]
.Continuous Count: When iterating through
nums
, keep a running count of consecutive numbers that form a strictly increasing sequence. Reset it when the sequence breaks.Use the Count: For each strictly increasing sequence of length
m
, you can form ( \frac{m*(m1)}{2} ) strictly increasing subarrays.
Here’s the optimized solution:


Time and Space Complexity:
 We have reduced the time complexity to (O(n)) as we are iterating through the array just once.
 The space complexity remains (O(1)) since we are using only a constant amount of extra space.
By optimizing, we’ve turned an (O(n^3)) algorithm into an (O(n)) algorithm, a substantial improvement.
Code Explanation and Design Decisions
Initial Parameters:
nums
: This is an array of integers that we are interested in examining. Each element represents a value in the sequence. The array’s length,n
, constrains the number of subarrays we can form and examine.
Primary Loop:
 The loop iterates through the
nums
array starting from index 1. Each iteration compares the current and previous elements to identify strictly increasing sequences. These sequences help us efficiently count the number of strictly increasing subarrays.
 The loop iterates through the
Conditions within Loop:
if nums[i] > nums[i1]
: This condition checks if the sequence is strictly increasing. If true, we extend the current sequence by increasinglength
by 1.else
: If the condition is not met, the sequence breaks. The else branch computes the number of strictly increasing subarrays that can be formed from the sequence and resetslength
to 1.
Updates within Loop:
length += 1
: Increases the count of elements in the current strictly increasing sequence. This helps us to calculate the total number of subarrays later.count += (length * (length  1)) // 2
: Adds the number of strictly increasing subarrays possible from the current sequence.
Invariant:
 The variable
count
is invariant as it consistently captures the total number of strictly increasing subarrays identified so far. At the end of the loop, it will contain the total number for the entire array.
 The variable
Final Output:
 The
count
value represents the total number of strictly increasing subarrays in the input arraynums
. It meets the objective outlined in the problem statement: efficiently counting strictly increasing subarrays.
 The
The intent of this code is to offer a highly efficient method for counting strictly increasing subarrays within a given array of integers. By identifying strictly increasing sequences and calculating the number of subarrays they produce, the algorithm achieves this in (O(n)) time.
Coding Constructs
HighLevel Strategies:
 Loop Iteration: The code iterates through the input list to find sequences of increasing numbers.
 Conditional Branching: The code uses ‘ifelse’ statements to decide when to extend a sequence or reset and count the subarrays.
 Accumulator Pattern: A variable accumulates the count of subarrays.
Explaining to a NonProgrammer:
 This code looks at a list of numbers and finds all the groups of numbers that are in ascending order. It counts how many such groups are there.
Logical Elements:
 Looping construct for iteration.
 Conditional statements for decisionmaking.
 Arithmetic operations for counting.
 Variables for storing intermediate and final results.
Algorithmic Approach in Plain English:
 Start at the beginning of the list.
 Look at each pair of numbers, the current one and the one before it.
 If the numbers are in increasing order, continue the sequence.
 If they are not, finish that sequence and count the number of increasing groups you could make from it.
 Repeat these steps for every pair of numbers in the list.
 In the end, you’ll know the total number of these increasing groups in the whole list.
Key Steps or Operations:
 Compare each number with the previous one to decide whether to continue the sequence or start a new one.
 Count the possible increasing groups for each identified sequence.
 Add this count to the overall count of increasing groups.
Algorithmic Patterns or Strategies:
 Linear Scan: Iterates through the list once, making it efficient.
 Decision Tree: Uses ‘ifelse’ statements to decide actions based on comparison results.
 Accumulator: Utilizes a variable to accumulate the total count of increasing sequences.
This approach is both clear and efficient, achieving the goal with minimal computational effort.
Language Agnostic Coding Drills
Distinct Coding Concepts:
 Variable Initialization: Storing initial values or placeholders.
 Basic Looping: Iterating over a list or array.
 Element Access: Retrieving an item from a list or array by index.
 Conditional Statements: Using ‘if’ and ’else’ to make decisions.
 Arithmetic Operations: Simple mathematical calculations.
 Comparing Elements: Using comparison operators between elements.
 Accumulator Pattern: Accumulating results in a variable.
 Nested Loops and Conditions: Using loops or conditions within other loops or conditions.
Order of Increasing Difficulty and Description:
 Variable Initialization: Easiest, as it’s the starting point for most programs.
 Element Access: Still simple but requires understanding of indices.
 Arithmetic Operations: Involves calculations but generally straightforward.
 Basic Looping: Involves control flow, making it a bit more complex.
 Conditional Statements: Requires logical reasoning.
 Comparing Elements: Involves both element access and conditional logic.
 Accumulator Pattern: Requires understanding of both looping and variable updating.
 Nested Loops and Conditions: Most complex, requires careful attention to control flow and state.
ProblemSolving Approach and StepByStep Process:
Understand the Problem: Know what sequences you need to count.
Initialize Variables: Set up variables to store your counts.
Basic Looping: Loop through the list of numbers to begin comparing.
Element Access: In each iteration, access the current and previous elements for comparison.
Conditional Statements: Decide whether the current sequence continues based on the comparison.
Arithmetic Operations: Calculate the number of sequences generated by each contiguous sequence of increasing numbers.
Accumulator Pattern: Accumulate these smaller counts into a total count.
Nested Loops and Conditions: Optionally, you might nest conditions to handle edge cases or optimize calculations.
By going through these steps, you sequentially apply each coding drill to assemble the final solution. Each concept or drill serves a purpose in the algorithm, contributing to counting sequences effectively and efficiently.
Targeted Drills in Python
General Coding Drills in Python
Variable Initialization
1
count = 0
Element Access
1 2
my_list = [1, 2, 3] first_element = my_list[0]
Arithmetic Operations
1
sum = 3 + 2
Basic Looping
1 2
for num in [1, 2, 3]: print(num)
Conditional Statements
1 2 3 4
if 3 > 2: print("True") else: print("False")
Comparing Elements
1 2
if my_list[0] < my_list[1]: print("True")
Accumulator Pattern
1 2 3
sum = 0 for num in [1, 2, 3]: sum += num
Nested Loops and Conditions
1 2 3 4
for i in range(3): for j in range(3): if i < j: print(f"{i} < {j}")
ProblemSpecific Drills
There may not be any additional problemspecific drills if the identified general drills cover all needed concepts for solving the problem. If there are problemspecific drills, they’ll be coded to fill gaps in the general drills.
Assembling the Final Solution
Initialize variables to keep track of counts or any other data.
Start a basic loop that iterates through the array of numbers.
Access elements in each iteration to compare with other elements.
Use arithmetic operations to calculate any required counts or sums.
Utilize conditional statements to determine the flow based on the comparison of elements.
Compare elements for fulfilling the specific condition given in the problem.
Implement the accumulator pattern to aggregate or sum up the results derived from each iteration.
Integrate nested loops and conditions if the problem requires checking multiple conditions or iterating through more than one list.
By integrating these drills in the above order, you can construct a cohesive algorithm to solve the initial problem. Each drill contributes to building up to the final solution.
Q&A
Similar Problems
Two Sum: This problem also involves looking for specific elements in an array, potentially requiring nested loops.
Valid Parentheses: The stackbased approach and need for specific conditions to hold true can be related to our original problem.
Maximum Subarray: This problem could employ the accumulator pattern to keep track of the maximum sum, similar to our original problem.
Reverse Integer: This task might involve manipulating individual digits and could also involve loops and conditions.
Palindrome Number: It involves checking individual digits, which could be done via loops and conditions similar to our problem.
Longest Common Prefix: This problem often requires nested loops to iterate through each string and each character in the strings.
3Sum: This problem requires nested loops and conditions to find three numbers that add up to zero.
Remove Duplicates from Sorted Array: This problem involves manipulating an array in place, a similar operation to what might be required in our original problem.
Rotate Array: The methods used to solve this problem could also involve multiple loops and array manipulations.
Find the Duplicate Number: This problem can involve the use of an accumulator and multiple loops to traverse the array and find duplicates.
Each problem listed involves one or more of the similar steps or techniques that were identified in solving our original problem. Whether it’s the use of nested loops, conditionals, array manipulations, or a combination of these, the listed problems share some similarities in their solution processes.